Papers in Review

Gloege, L., G.A. McKinley, C.B. Mouw, A. Barnett. Global evaluation of particulate organic carbon flux parameterizations, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, accepted pending revisions. 

Golub, M., A.R. Desai, G.A. McKinley, C.K. Remucal, and E.H. Stanley. Large uncertainty in estimating pCO2 from carbonate equilibria in lakes, J. Geophys. Res-G., 2017JG003794- in review.

Orr, J.C., R.G. Najjar, A. Aumont, L. Bopp, … G.A. McKinley… et al. OMIP biogeochemical protocols and diagnostics for CMIP6. Geoscientific Model Development, in review.

Pilcher, D.J., G.A. McKinley, J. Kralj, and H.A. Bootsma. Modeled sensitivity of Lake Michigan productivity and zooplankton to changing nutrient concentrations and quagga mussels,  J. Geophys. Res. in review. 


Fay, A.R. and G.A. McKinley (2017) Mechanistic connections between carbon and chlorophyll in the global ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 31, doi: 10.1002/2016GB005563. (44)

McKinley, G.A., A.R. Fay, N. Lovenduski, and D.J. Pilcher (2017) Natural variability and anthropogenic trends in the ocean carbon sink, Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci.  9: 125-150, doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060529. (43)

Mouw, C.B., A. Barnett,  G.A. McKinley, L. Gloege, D.J. Pilcher (2016) Phytoplankton size impact on export flux in the global ocean,  Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 30, doi:10.1002/2015GB005355. (42)

Mouw, C.B., A. Barnett,  G.A. McKinley, L. Gloege, D.J. Pilcher (2016) Global ocean particulate organic carbon flux merged with satellite parameters. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 531-541, doi:10.5194/essd-8-531-2016. (41)

Lovenduski, N., G.A. McKinley, A.R. Fay, K. Lindsay, M.C. Long (2016) Partitioning uncertainty in ocean carbon uptake projections, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 30, 12761287, doi:10.1002/2016GB005426. (40)

McKinley, G.A., D.J. Pilcher, A.R. Fay, K. Lindsay, M.C. Long, and N. Lovenduski (2016) Timescales for detection of trends in the ocean carbon sink, Nature, doi:10.1038/nature16958. (39)  Part of Nature’s Carbon Accounting Collection.

Breeden, M. and G.A. McKinley (2016) Climate impacts on multidecadal pCO2 variability in the North Atlantic: 1948–2009, Biogeosciences, 13, 3387-3396, doi:10.5194/bg-13-3387-2016. (38)

McKinley, G.A., C.A. Carlson, A. Andrews, D. Brown, P. Romero-Lankao, and G. Shrestha (2015) Managing the carbon cycle requires strong science,  Eos, 96, doi:10.1029/2015EO040161. (37)

Dave, A., A.D. Barton, M.S. Lozier, and G.A. McKinley (2015) What drives seasonal change in oligotrophic area in the subtropical North Atlantic?  J. Geophys. Res. – Oceans, doi: 10.1002/2015JC010787.(36)

Phillips, J., G.A. McKinley, V. Bennington, H. Bootsma, D. Pilcher, R.W. Sterner, N.R. Urban (2015) Evaluating the potential for CO2-induced acidification of the Laurentian Great Lakes, Oceanography 28(2):136–145. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2015.37. (35)

Lovenduski, N., A.R. Fay, G.A. McKinley (2015) Observing multi-decadal trends in Southern Ocean CO2 uptake: What can we learn from an ocean model?, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, doi: 10.1002/2014GB004933. (34)

Pilcher, D.J., G.A. McKinley, V. Bennington, H. Bootsma (2015) Physical and biogeochemical mechanisms of internal carbon cycling in Lake Michigan, J. Geophys. Res.,  doi: 10.1002/2014JC010594. (33)

Kitchell, J.F., T. Cline, V. Bennington and G.A. McKinley (2015) Challenges of managing invasive sea lamprey in Lake Superior. In Bioeconomics of Invasive Species: Integrating Ecology, Economics, Policy and Management. ed: R. P. Keller, D. M. Lodge, M. A. Lewis, J. F. Shogren, University of Chicago Press. (32)

Fay, A.R., G.A. McKinley, N. Lovenduski (2014) Southern Ocean carbon trends: Sensitivity to methods, Geophys. Res. Lett. doi: 10.1002/2014GL061324. (31)

Fay, A. R., and G. A. McKinley (2014) Global ocean biomes: mean and temporal variability, Earth Syst. Sci. Data 6, 273-284, doi:10.5194/essd-6-273-2014.  (30)

Cline, T., J.F. Kitchell, V. Bennington, G.A. McKinley, E.K. Moody, B.C. Weidel (2014) Climate impacts on landlocked sea lamprey: Implications for host-parasite interactions and invasive species management. Ecosphere 5 (6), art68. doi: 10.1890/ES14-00059.1. (29)

Fay, A. R., and G. A. McKinley (2013), Global trends in surface ocean pCO2 from in situ data, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 27, doi:10.1002/gbc.20051. (28)

Khatiwala, S., Tanhua, T., Mikaloff Fletcher, S., Gerber, M., Doney, S. C., Graven, H. D., Gruber, N., McKinley, G. A., Murata, A., Ríos, A. F., and Sabine, C. L. (2013) Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon, Biogeosciences 10, 2169-2191, doi:10.5194/bg-10-2169-2013. (27)

Wanninkhof, R., Park, G. -H., Takahashi, T., Sweeney, C., Feely, R., Nojiri, Y., Gruber, N., Doney, S. C., McKinley, G. A., Lenton, A., Le Quéré, C., Heinze, C., Schwinger, J., Graven, H., and Khatiwala, S. (2013) Global ocean carbon uptake: magnitude, variability and trends, Biogeosciences 10, 1983-2000, doi:10.5194/bg-10-1983-2013. (26)

Mouw, C. B., H. Chen, G. A. McKinley, S. Effler, D. O’Donnell, M. G. Perkins, and C. Strait (2013), Evaluation and optimization of bio-optical inversion algorithms for remote sensing of Lake Superior’s optical properties, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 118, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20139.  (25)

Schuster, U., G.A. McKinley, N. Bates, F. Chevallier, S.C. Doney, A.R. Fay, M. González-Dávila, N. Gruber, S. Jones, J. Krijnen, P. Landschützer, N. Lefèvre, M. Manizza, J. Mathis, N. Metzl, N., A. Olsen, A.F. Rios, C. Rödenbeck, J. M. Santana-Casiano, T. Takahashi, R. Wanninkhof, and A.J. Watson (2013) Atlantic and Arctic sea-air CO2 fluxes, 1990–2009. Biogeosciences 10, 607-627, doi:10.5194/bg-10-607-2013. (24)

Bennington, V., G.A. McKinley, N. Urban, C. McDonald (2012) Can spatial heterogeneity explain the perceived imbalance in Lake Superior’s carbon budget? A model study. J. Geophys. Res. 117, G03020, 20 PP., 2012 doi:10.1029/2011JG001895.  (23)

McDonald, C.P., V. Bennington, N. Urban and G.A. McKinley (2012) Test-bed calibration of a Lake Superior biogeochemical model, Ecological Modelling 225, 115-126, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.11.021. (22)

Vasys, V.N., A.R. Desai, G.A. McKinley, V. Bennington, A.M. Michalak, D.N. Huntzinger, and A.E. Andrews (2011) Implications of neglecting large lake carbon cycling for regional tracer transport inversions. Envi. Res. Lett. 6, 2011,
doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034016. (21)

McKinley, G.A., A.R. Fay, T. Takahashi and N. Metzl (2011) Convergence of atmospheric and North Atlantic carbon dioxide trends on multidecadal timescales. Nature Geoscience; doi:10.1038/ngeo1193. (20)
Supplementary Material can be found here

Atilla, N., G. A. McKinley, V. Bennington, M. Baehr, N.Urban, M. DeGrandpre, A. Desai, and C. Wu (2011) Observed variability of Lake Superior pCO2, Limnol. Oceanogr., 56(3), 2011, 775-786, doi:10.4319/lo.2011.56.3.0775. (19)

Bennington, V., G. A. McKinley, N. Kimura, and C. H. Wu (2010) General circulation of Lake Superior: Mean, variability, and trends from 1979 to 2006, J. Geophys. Res., 115, C12015, doi:10.1029/2010JC006261. (18)

Saba, V. and others (2010) Challenges of modeling depth-integrated marine primary productivity over multiple decades: A case study at BATS and HOT, Global Biogeochem. Cycles., 24, GB3020, doi:10.1029/2009GB003655. (17)

Illari L., J. Marshall, P. Bannon, J. Botella, R. Clark, T. Haine, A. Kumar, S. Lee, K. J. Mackin, G.A. McKinley, M. Morgan, R. Najjar, T. Sikora, and A. Tandon (2009) Weather in a Tank: Exploiting laboratory experiments in the teaching of meteorology, oceanography and climate. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 90(11), doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2658.1. (16)

Desai, A., J. Austin, V. Bennington and G.A. McKinley (2009) Stronger winds over a large lake in response to a weakening air to lake temperature gradient. Nature Geoscience, doi:10.1038/ngeo693. (15) 

Ullman, D. J., G. A. McKinley, V. Bennington, and S. Dutkiewicz (2009), Trends in the North Atlantic carbon sink: 1992 – 2006, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB4011, doi:10.1029/2008GB003383. (14)
Supplementary Material

Bennington, V, G.A. McKinley, S. Dutkiewicz, D. Ullman (2009) What does chlorophyll variability tell us about export and air-sea CO2 flux variability in the North Atlantic? Global Biogeochem. Cycles., 23, GB3002, doi:10.1029/2008GB003241. (13)
Supplementary Material

Koch, J., G. A. McKinley, V. Bennington, and D. Ullman (2009), Do hurricanes cause significant interannual variability in the air-sea CO2 flux of the subtropical North Atlantic?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L07606, doi:10.1029/2009GL037553. (12) highlighted by Nature Reports Climate Change link
Supplementary Material

Cassar, N., G.A. McKinley, M.L. Bender, R. Mika, and M. Battle (2008) An improved comparison of atmospheric Ar/N2 time-series and paired ocean-atmosphere model predictions, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D21122, doi:10.1029/2008JD009817. (11)

Nevison, C.D., N.M. Mahowald, S.C. Doney, I.D. Lima, G.R. van der Werf, J.T. Randerson, D.F. Baker, P. Kasibhatla and G. A. McKinley (2008) Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere and biomass burning carbon fluxes to seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric CO2, J. Geophys. Res., 113, G01010, doi:10.1029/2007JG000408. (10)

Sweeney, C., E. Gloor, A. R. Jacobson, R. M. Key, G. McKinley, J. L. Sarmiento, and R. Wanninkhof (2007) Constraining global air-sea gas exchange for CO2 with recent bomb 14C measurements,Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB2015, doi:10.1029/2006GB002784.  (9)

McKinley, G.A., T. Takahashi, E. Buitenhuis, F. Chai, J. R. Christian, S. C. Doney, M.-S. Jiang, C. Le Quere, I. Lima, K. Linday, J.K. Moore, R. Murtugudde, L. Shi, P.Wetzel (2006) North Pacific carbon cycle response to climate variability on seasonal to decadal timescales. J. Geophys. Res., 111, C07S06, doi:10.1029/2005JC003173. (8)

McKinley, G.A., M. Zuk, M. Hojer, M. Avalos, I. Gonzalez, R. Iniestra, I. Laguna, M.A. Martinez, P. Osnaya, and J. Martinez (2005) Quantification of local and global benefits from air pollution control in Mexico City. Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 1954-1961 doi:10.1021/es035183e. (7)

Peylin, P., P. Bousquet, C. LeQuere, P. Friedlingstein, S. Sitch, G.A. McKinley, N. Gruber, P. Ciais, and P. Rayner (2005) Multiple constraints of regional CO2 flux variations over land and oceans.Global Biogeochem. Cycles. 18, GB1011, doi: 10/1029/2003GB002214. (6)

McKinley, G.A., C. Rodenbeck, M. Gloor, S. Houweling and M. Heimann (2004) Pacific dominance to global air-sea CO2 flux variablility: A novel atmospheric inversion agrees with ocean models.Geophys. Res. Let., 31, GL22308, doi:10.1029/2004GL021069.  (5)

McKinley, G. A., M. J. Follows, and J. Marshall (2004), Mechanisms of air-sea CO2 flux variability in the equatorial Pacific and the North Atlantic, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, GB2011, doi:10.1029/2003GB002179. (4)

McKinley, G.A., M. J. Follows, J. Marshall, and S. Fan (2003) Interannual variability of air-sea O2fluxes and the determination of CO2 sinks using atmospheric O2/N2. Geophys. Res. Let. v 30(3), 1101, doi:10.1029/2002GL016044. (3)

Battle, M., M. Bender, M.B. Hendricks, D.T. Ho, R. Mika, G.A. McKinley, S. Fan, T. Blaine, and R. Keeling (2003) Measurements and models of the atmospheric Ar/N2 ratio. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(15), 1786, doi:10.1029/2003GL017411. (2)

McKinley, G, M. Follows, and J. Marshall (2000) Interannual variability of the air-sea flux of oxygen in the North Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Let., 27(18), 2933-2936. (1)

Non-Peer Reviewed

Benway, H., Alin, S., Boyer, E., Cai, W.-J., Coble, P., Cross, J., Friedrichs, M., Goñi, M., Griffith, P., Herrmann, M., Lohrenz, S., Mathis, J., McKinley, G., Najjar, R., Pilskaln, C., Siedlecki, S., Smith, R. 2016. A Science Plan for Carbon Cycle Research in North American Coastal Waters. Report of the Coastal CARbon Synthesis (CCARS) community workshop, August 19-21, 2014, Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program and North American Carbon Program, 84 pp. download

Bracco, A., M.C. Long, N.M. Levine, R.Q. Thomas, C. Deutsch and G.A. McKinley (2015) NCAR’s Summer Colloquium: Capacity building in cross-disciplinary research of earth system carbon-climate connections, Bulletin Am. Met. Soc. 96, 1381–1384.

Thomas, R.Q., G.A. McKinley, and M.C. Long (2013) Examining uncertainties in representations of the carbon cycle in Earth System Models. EOS Transactions 94:460.

Mooney, M. E., Ackerman, S., Mckinley, G. A., Whittaker, T. and Jasmin, T. (2012) Lesson Plans and Classroom Activities from the Climate Literacy Ambassadors Community. The Earth Scientist 28, 1–40. Download PDF

McKinley, G.A, N. Urban, V. Bennington, D. Pilcher, and C. McDonald, (2011) Preliminary Carbon Budgets for the Laurentian Great Lakes, OCB News 4 Download PDF

Papers in Preparation

Barton, A.D., L. Gloege, M.S. Lozier, G.A. McKinley and V. Bennington.  The sensitivity of North Atlantic phytoplankton communities to changes in wind and buoyancy forcing. in prep. for Geophys. Res. Lett.

Chen, H., G.A. McKinley. Physical mechanisms to explain near-surface nutrient and oxygen cycles in the subtropics. in prep.

Chen, H., G.A. McKinley, and C.B. Mouw. Net impact of mesoscale eddies to oligotrophic chlorophyll , in prep.

McKinley, G.A. and V. Bennington. Physical drivers of biogeochemical and carbon cycling in Lake Superior, in prep. for J. Great Lakes Res.                            

Pilcher, D.J., G.A. McKinley, K. Lindsay, and M.C. Long. Mechanisms of the forced trends in surface ocean pCO2, in prep. for Global Biogeochem. Cycles

Ritzer, A., G.A. McKinley, N. Lovenduski. Chlorophyll-a variability due to large-scale North Atlantic circulation changes, in prep. for Biogeosciences


McKinley, G.A. (2002) Interannual variability in air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide and oxygen, MIT PhD. Download PDF